FILOSOFISKA NOTISER


Filosofiska Notiser Årgång 6, Nr 1, 2019

This is a special issue on deontic logic. More papers will appear later.


Franz von Kutschera
Joint Obligations

Abstract
Obligations are addressed to persons and require that they do something, refrain from doing something, prevent something or see to it, that a certain state of affairs is realized or preserved. Therefore a theory of action is the appropriate frame for deontic logic. The frame for such a theory is the logic of branching histories (T x W logic), a combination of tense and modality, to which alternatives for persons are added. In a paper on collective alternatives (2014) I have shown that the alternatives for groups of agents do not always derive from the alternatives of their members. In this paper I want to examine the consequences for deontic logic. Its largest part, however, is about the action-theoretic preliminaries. Readers familiar with them may turn directly to the last paragraph.

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Lou Goble
Axioms for Hansson's Dyadic Deontic Logics

Abstract
This paper presents axiomatic systems equivalent to Bengt Hansson's semantically defined dyadic deontic logics, DSDL1, DSDL2 and DSDL3. Each axiomatic system is demonstrated to be sound and complete with respect to the particular classes of models Hansson defined, and in that way to be equivalent to his logics. I also include another similar member of the family I call DSDL2.5 and provide an axiomatic system for it. These systems are further found to be decidable, and, although DSDL3 is compact, the three weaker ones are shown not to be.

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John-Jules Meyer
Deontic Dynamic Logic: a Retrospective

Abstract
In this paper a retrospective is given on the development of deontic dynamic logic. It first reviews the basic system PDeL as introduced in 1988, with emphasis on conceptual issues and technical choices and properties. It then continues with later developments and applications by ourselves and related work by others. Thus we will see how contrary-to-duties and free choice permissions are treated, and how violations can be handled more expressively, including a way of dealing with red/green states and transitions.

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Jan Odelstad
Joining conceptual systems - three remarks on TJS

Abstract
The Theory of Joining Systems, abbreviated TJS, is a general theory of representing for example legal and other normative systems as formal structures. It uses algebraic tools and a fundamental idea in this algebraic approach is the representation of a conditional norm as an ordered pair of concepts. Another fundamental idea is that the components in such a pair are concepts of different sorts. Conditional norms are thus links from for example descriptive to normative concepts and the result is the joining of two conceptual systems. However, there are often at least three kinds of concepts involved in many normative systems, viz. descriptive, normative and intermediate concepts. Intermediate concepts such as ‘being the owner’ and ‘being a citizen’ have descriptive grounds and normative consequences and can be said to be located intermediately between the system of grounds and the system of consequences. Intermediate concepts function as bridges (links, joinings) between concepts of different sorts. The aim of this paper is to further develop TJS and widen the range of application of the theory. It will be shown that the idea of norms as ordered pairs is flexible enough to handle nested implications and hypothetical consequences. Minimal joinings, which are important in TJS, are shown to be closely related to formal concepts in Formal Concept Analysis. TJS was developed for concepts of a special kind, namely conditions. In this paper a new model of TJS is developed, where the concepts are attributes and aspects, and the role of intermediate concepts in this model is discussed.

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